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Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Degradation By Basidiomycetes

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Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are ubiquitous contaminants widely distributed in the environment, with suspected carcinogenic and mutagenic effects. The clean-up of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon contaminated sites is of great importance to protecting human health. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are organic compounds composed of two or more fused benzene rings which are formed during the combustion of organic molecules and their subsequent recombination .

Low molecular weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are composed of 23 aromatic rings. They are commonly found in petrogenic sources and can be introduced to the aquatic environment through oil spillage and discharge from ships, tankers, motorboats, etc. Contamination can also come from municipal and urban runoff . Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons of high molecular weight, composed of 46 aromatic rings , are often released into the environment through pyrogenic sources . Such polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are considered priority pollutants because they are recalcitrant in the soil, due to their high affinity and low water solubility .

Fig. 46

Polyester polyurethane films with fungal growth and signs of biodegradation on the surface. a PEU film not exposed to Aspergillus species b fungal growth on the surface of PEU c, d PEU films after the washing of fungal hyphae from the surface of the films

Fig. 47

Immunosuppressive And Immunomodulatory Agents From Fungi

Immunosuppression is a form of therapy that prevents the immune system of patients from acting against transplanted tissues and organs without the availability of immunosuppressive drugs, the progresses made in modern medicine, in particular regarding kidney, heart and liver transplants, would be unthinkable. Furthermore, immunosuppressants are used to control severe manifestations of allergic and autoimmune related diseases. Many of these drugs specifically address certain biochemical pathways that are crucial for the functioning of human defense against alien organisms, such as pathogens, by selectively inhibiting the immunocompetent lymphocytes or signal transduction cascades that regulate the transcription of cytokines. For this reason, patients treated with immunosuppressants often have to be hospitalized and treated in parallel with antibiotics to prevent infection.

Some of the most important immunosuppressive drugs are natural products that are being produced biotechnologically by fermentation of bacteria and fungi. While tacrolimus and sirolimus are derived from actinobacteria and will accordingly not be treated here, cyclosporine and mycophenolate mofetil are fungal metabolites, and the present entry is therefore dedicated to these important molecules .

Fig. 10

Arbuscular Mycorrhizae As Biofertilizers

Ectomycorrhizal association describes a structure that results from a mutualistic symbiosis between the roots of higher plants and root-inhabiting fungi. Within this symbiotic relationship, the role of the fungi is to help the host plants take up water and nutrients, receiving plant-derived carbohydrates from photosynthesis in return. About 6000 plant species in 145 genera and 26 families have been estimated to possess ectomycorrhizal symbiotic fungal partners . Ectomycorrhizal association helps both the fungi and their host plants to overcome environmental stresses caused by low nutrients, drought, disease, extreme temperatures and heavy metal contamination . Moreover, ectomycorrhizae can improve soil structure and nutrients protect the plants against root pathogens promote plant growth by producing phytohormones and increase the photosynthetic rate of the plants . Ectomycorrhizae are dominated by members of the Basidiomycota, some Ascomycota, and, rarely, Mucoromycota . Generally, ectomycorrhizae produce reproductive fruiting bodies appearing above- or below-ground that are essential to the food webs of forest ecosystems and their spore dispersal .

Fig. 16

Arbuscular mycorrhizae inoculum production. a Pot culture of sorghum and maize, b on-farm inoculum production using leaf litter compost and agricultural wastes c In vitro production with root organ culture d newly produced Funneliformis mosseae spores attached to Ri T-DNA transformed carrot roots

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Biocontrol Of Nematodes And Fungal Nematicides

Plant-parasitic nematodes are parasites which cause severe damage to many economically important crops such as tomatoes, potatoes and wheat. For example, around US $80 billion of yield losses are caused annually by damage from plant rootknot nematodes, such as M. javanica and M. incognita . Nematicidal chemicals that were once rather effective, such as methyl bromide, have ultimately been banned because they are broad-spectrum biocides that kill all life in the soil and contribute to the depletion of the ozone layer, thereby causing grave problems to the environment. Therefore, in recent years there have been great efforts in both academia and industry to find ecologically viable alternatives.

Table 6 Taxonomy of nematode parasitic fungi, their trapping mechanisms and parasitic nematodes.Fig. 14Table 7 Commercial biological nematicides based on nematophagous fungi.

Functional Foods And Nutraceuticals

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The average age of the global population is increasing, and society is becoming more aware of the potential side effects of prescription medicines, and therefore are seeking alternative therapeutics . Various new nutritional concepts, such as functional foods and nutraceuticals have been developed over recent decades. By definition, functional foods are conventional or everyday foods consumed as part of the normal daily diet, targeting the enhancement of the well-being and quality of life and thus reducing the risk of disease . The term nutraceuticals is defined as food constituents that provide medical or health benefits, including the prevention and treatment of disease . Nutraceuticals can be food in the form of extracts, single, pure natural compounds, or nutrients that have been turned into a pharmaceutical formulation , and they can be applied as dietary supplements or as part of a specific diet . Therefore, the role of functional foods is mainly related to reducing the risk of disease, while nutraceuticals are usually consumed to promote well-being through the prevention or treatment of diseases and disorders .

Fig. 37Fig. 38

Examples of biologically active compounds from fungi used in functional foods and nutraceuticals. 61: Synthetic compound inspired from cordycepin 62: Triterpenoid from Ganoderma sp. 63: Main active principle of Phellinus linteus 64: Blazeispirols 65: Lentinan, a beta-glucane from Lentinula edodes

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Toenail Fungus Is A Common Problem

Its estimated that 10% of the population deals with stubborn toenail fungus.1

Not surprisingly, conventional medicines answer to this widespread problem is to prescribe antifungal pills that are often ineffective and come with serious side effects, ranging from rashes and GI issues to potential liver damage.2

However, as with all skin issues, I find that toenail fungus is typically an outward manifestation of an underlying health issue inside of your body.

After working with thousands of patients in my clinic, Ive seen time and again that relentless skin issuesincluding toenail fungus, eczema, dandruff, psoriasis, hives, athletes foot and ringwormare most often caused by Candida overgrowth.3Candida is a type of yeast that naturally lives in your body. However, when there is an overabundance of Candida, it disturbs a healthy gut balance.

So while you may be doing all you can to control your toenail fungus superficially, the key to eliminating the issue for good is to address the underlying cause of the infection.

Lets discuss how an infection in your gut can lead to nail fungus. Then, well cover the natural nail fungus killers you can take to rid yourself of nail fungus for good.

How Do Probiotics Help With Candida

Probiotics can help with Candida in various ways, depending on the individual properties of that specific probiotic strain. Some strains can help to inhibit the growth of Candida, others can help to prevent Candida from colonising the gastrointestinal tract, whilst others can produce anti-fungal substances effective against Candida. The best probiotics for Candida are found in Optibac Probiotics Saccharomyces boulardii, Every Day EXTRA and Every Day MAX which we will discuss in detail throughout this article. Other helpful probiotics include Bifido & Fibre and For Women, read on to find out more about the studies behind the strains in these products.

Candida albicans

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Using Probiotics As A Treatment For Toenail Fungus

While there are plenty of good treatment options for toenail fungus, probiotics start working from the inside out. Introducing them can help with a variety of other health concerns. When it comes to fungal infections, its hard to beat good bacteria.

Since toenail fungus is bacteria that your body doesnt want, you need the best probiotics for toenail fungus to get rid of it. If youre looking for a natural way to clear up a fungal infection and help your immune system, probiotics could be the right option.

Growing Mushrooms In Bags

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Wood-inhabiting mushrooms can be cultivated in any type of lignocellulosic material, such as straw, sawdust or rice hulls . Pathmashini et al. showed that the cultivation of the oyster mushroom on various sawdust types produces different fruiting yields. Sawdust is the most commonly used material for the cultivation of oyster mushrooms and is the preferred medium for commercial production . Maximum biological efficiency of oyster mushroom cultivation is gained from growth on the sawdust of rubber trees . It has also been shown that softwood sawdust such as coconut, cashew, mango and rubber are more suitable than hardwood sawdust . The availability of raw materials such as sawdust, rice straw, sugarcane wastes are key factors in the choice of agricultural waste for growing mushrooms . The most commonly and easily cultivated mushrooms in South East Asian countries are oyster mushrooms , ear mushrooms , and straw mushrooms , Lentinula edodes , as well as Lentinus , Ganoderma, Macrolepiota and Agrocybe spp. .

Fig. 25

aAuricularia thailandica growing on sawdust substrate bags bAuricularia cornea white variety growing on sawdust substrate bags c mushroom spawn bottles

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When To Expect Results

Vaginal suppositories may work faster than oral probiotics. Oral probiotics may be helpful in preventing recurrent yeast infections, while vaginal suppositories are intended for more serious or acute cases.

You will see the number of probiotics in a particular supplement listed as colony-forming units, or CFUs. This is the number of probiotic strains in the supplement at the time it was produced.

Your time-to-results depends on multiple factors, including your specific clinical history, the dose and quality of the probiotic strains in your supplement, and other factors. It is best to consult a healthcare professional when selecting the appropriate strain for your yeast infection.

Cardiovascular Disease Control By Fungi

Cardiovascular diseases include diseases of the heart, vascular diseases of the brain, and diseases of blood vessels . Elevated levels of plasma cholesterol are responsible for these diseases, as they play a major role in atherosclerosis, the clogging or hardening of arteries caused by accumulations of fatty deposits . These diseases were responsible for 17.3 million deaths per year in 2015, and are the leading source of deaths worldwide . Inhibition of de novo synthesis of cholesterol was demonstrated to be an effective method for reducing plasma cholesterol levels . The rate determining step is the reduction of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A to mevalonate by HMG-CoA reductase hence selective inhibition of the latter enzyme, can reduce the synthesis of cholesterol . The most important class of HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors are the statins , which are derived from fungal natural products and contain two types of structures moieties, a hexahydro-naphthalene system and a -hydroxylactone system. The statins are also the best-selling class of pharmaceutical drugs, with an annual turnover in the range of US$50 billion. Therefore, the most important compounds of this type are treated here.

Fig. 8

Solid state fermentation, or submerged cultures, can be used for the production of lovastatin , but production is significantly higher in the former . Sorghum grain, wheat bran, rice and corn are used as substrates for solid state fermentation .

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What Is Mushroom Stock Products Processes And Flavours

Mushroom stock is a seasoning or food additive comprised of various mushroom flavours. In China, mushroom stocks are probably used more than anywhere else in the world. Mushroom stock products can be made from various species, including Agaricus bisporus , Termitomyces albuminosus Tuber magnatum and many others. Mushroom stock products can mainly be divided into five types: condensed mushroom extracts, mushroom powders, mushroom sauces, preserved fried mushrooms, and instant mushroom soups. Mushroom extracts and powder are often used as a seasoning or ingredients in hot pot, while mushroom sauce and preserved fried mushrooms are commonly used as additives to rice, noodles and bread.

The rationale why mushroom stocks can be attractive ingredients foir many consumers is based not only on their flavour profile but also on a broad spectrum of their bioactive compounds . These bioactive compounds may include unsaturated fatty acids , free amino acids , volatile components , sulfur-sensory active compounds , antioxidant components like phenolics , antiproliferative and antitumor molecules like polysaccharides , anti-lung cancer peptides , and various neuroactive compounds , depending on the mushrooms used to make the stock.

Fungi Used In Making Tea

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Tea is one of the most popular beverages in the world. Tea contains relatively high amounts of chemical substances, such as caffeine and vitamins, which can accelerate the oxidation of fat. Therefore, almost all teas have a slimming and weight loss effect. Fermentation is the key factor in the tea manufacturing process. The fermentation of tea leaves alters their chemistry, affecting the organoleptic qualities of the tea. Fermentation affects the smell of the tea and typically mellows its taste, reducing astringency and bitterness while improving mouthfeel and aftertaste. The microbes may also produce metabolites with health benefits. According to different degrees of fermentation, tea can be divided into green tea , oolong tea , black tea and dark tea . Unlike other teas, dark teas, such as Pu-erh tea and Ceylon tea, are microbially fermented teas.

The commercially available tea also contains many fungal populations. Abe et al. found that Aspergillus niger and Blastobotrys adeninivorans exists in the final Pu-erh tea products. This is due to the influence of production environments and unstable fermentation processes, which are difficult to control and regulate. However, on the basis of traditional post-fermentation, through inoculating special preponderant fungal agents, not only can this suppress harmful microbes, but also can shorten the fermentation time and ensure the stability of product quality .

Fig. 34

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Other Options For Yeast Infection Treatment

Especially if its your first time experiencing symptoms, speak to a gynecologist or healthcare provider to determine whether you have a yeast infection before you try any type of treatment. Many of the symptoms of a yeast infection can also occur with other types of vaginitis, and you want to be sure you use the best treatment for your condition.

Effective treatments for a yeast infection include:

  • Prescription antifungal medication: These creams, ointments, pills, and suppositories come in one-day, three-day, and seven-day strengths. Note that pregnant women should not take single doses of oral medication such as fluconazole .
  • OTC treatments: Over-the-counter vaginal creams and suppositories, such as miconazole , also come in one-day, three-day, and seven-day strengths. These products often have the same ingredients as prescription medications but in less concentrated amounts.

Commonly Used Antifungal Drugs

The global spread of multidrug-resistant fungus poses a significant challenge to infectious disease prevention and control in medical facilities . The incidence of fungal infections in patients is gradually increasing due to the aggravation of the aging problem in many countries and regions, as well as the widespread use of invasive treatments . At the same time, while the survival rate of cancer patients and organ transplant patients is improving, these patients are becoming increasingly susceptible to secondary infections from opportunistic fungi, necessitating the use of antifungal drugs in clinical practice . The abuse of antibiotics and antifungal drugs can easily lead to the development of drug resistance in fungi. Long-term drug treatment not only invalidates the effect of the available antibacterial drugs but also leads to an imbalance of the human flora and a decline in the bodys immunity, making invasive fungal infections more plausible . If the situation continues in this way, a vicious cycle of antifungal drugs and drug-resistant fungi will emerge.

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Probiotic Fungus Blend Review

The bigger ingredient blend in terms of dosage in Fungus Clear is a blend of probiotics, totalling 6 billion colony-forming units .

While medical research suggests that probiotic supplementation may be effective for internal fungal issues , we havenât come across any medical research even testing oral probiotics for treating topical fungus.

There is also significant medical research suggesting topical use of probiotics may be effective for skin conditions, but it seems illogical to take an oral supplement with seemingly random strains of probiotics to treat a topical skin condition.

Vitality Health doesnât publish or link out to any research on their website or Amazon listing proving that the probiotics they used in this formula are effective for treating topical fungus, so weâll assume this blend is totally ineffective. There is simply no research we can identify suggesting it works.

One red flag about this product is that it only lists the probiotic species, and not the strain. This is a sign of formulation inexperience or incompetence in our opinion.

Probiotics have a species and a strain . The strain is a specific subset of the species, and different strains within the same species can have different health effects.

We recently reviewed another probiotic supplement called BioFit which had this same labeling issue.

If a company wonât tell their customers exactly what strain of probiotics is in their supplement, weâd recommend avoiding them entirely.

Fungus Clear: Where To Purchase It

The Best Probiotic Food Is Definitely NOT Yogurt

You can only buy this product from their official website that offers several package deals to help sufferers of toenail fungus for good.

Here are the pricing options:

Apart from this, the manufacturers are also offering a 180-day cash back guarantee, which means that if you are not happy with the product or the results, you can contact them 8 am to 5:30 pm PST MON through FRI 8 am to 1:00 pm PST SAT-SUN and get your money back, no questions asked by phone or email at:

  • Customer Support: 855-633-7168
  • Address: 122 Broadway N Ste 100 Fargo, North Dakota 58102

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