Bacterial Infection Of The Nail
The Staphylococcus aureus bacterium is a common cause of bacterial infection of the nail. Typically, the infection first takes hold in the fold of skin at the base of the nail . Without treatment, the infection can worsen, leading to inflammation and pus. It is often associated with candida infection, particularly when it becomes chronic.Activities that predispose a person to a bacterial nail infection include:
- Having constantly wet hands
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How Do Dermatologists Treat A Fungal Nail Infection
Treatment usually begins with your dermatologist trimming your infected nail, cutting back each infected nail to the place where it attaches to your finger or toe. Your dermatologist may also scrape away debris under the nail. This helps get rid of some fungus.
To completely get rid of the infection, most people also need one or more of the following treatments:
Medicine you apply to the nail: If you have a mild infection, a medicine that you apply to your nails may get rid of the infection. This treatment helps keep new fungus out while the nails grow. Fingernails typically grow out in four to six months. Toenails take longer, usually takes 12 to 18 months.
Probably the most difficult part of this treatment is remembering to use it as often as prescribed. Some treatments must be applied every day. Others you apply once a week. To get the best results, its essential that you apply these medicines exactly as directed.
The US Food and Drug Administration has approved the following medicines that you apply to the nail to treat nail fungus:
Side effects from these medicines are generally mild. Possible side effects include redness and swelling, an ingrown toenail, and stinging or burning when you apply the medicine. In clinical trials, none of these side effects caused patients to stop using the treatment.
The FDA has approved the following systemic medicines to treat nail fungus:
How Is Subungual Melanoma Diagnosed
Subungual melanoma is difficult to detect on your own. As a rule of thumb, you should see your doctor right away if you notice any unusual changes or growths in your nail.
To correctly diagnose subungual melanoma, your doctor will need to conduct a biopsy. It will most likely be a punch biopsy, which is a procedure in which a tube-like instrument with a sharp end works like a cookie cutter to take a small sample. This small sample will be tested for melanoma. The biopsy can also be used to rule out other conditions, such as fungal infection.
Subungual melanoma that isnt treated can metastasize, or spread to other parts of your body. You can learn more about metastatic melanoma here.
Your doctor may recommend amputating the finger or toe the melanoma first developed in to prevent this. However, this method is debatable. According to a
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What Are The Symptoms Of Subungual Melanoma
When you hear the word melanoma, your first thought might be irregular-shaped moles on the skin caused by sun damage. But since subungual melanoma affects the nail matrix, the signs and symptoms dont look like a typical mole on the skin.
Symptoms of this condition include:
- a light- to dark-brown colored band on the nail thats usually vertical
- a dark band on the nail that slowly expands and covers more of the nail
- dark nail pigmentation that expands to the surrounding skin
- a nodule underneath the nail with or without a pigmentation band
- nail brittleness and cracking
- bleeding at the site of pigmentation
Its important to note that not all cases of this condition cause pigmentation changes in the nail. While this can make the melanoma more challenging to detect, a telltale sign of the condition is that it usually affects one nail at a time.
How Do Dermatologists Diagnose Melanoma
When you see a board-certified dermatologist, your dermatologist will:
Examine your skin carefully
Ask questions about your health, medications, and symptoms
Want to know if melanoma runs in your family
If any spot on your skin looks like skin cancer, your dermatologist will first numb the area and then remove all of it. This can be done during an office visit and is called a skin biopsy. This is a simple procedure, which a dermatologist can quickly, safely, and easily perform.
Having a skin biopsy is the only way to know for sure whether you have skin cancer.
The tissue that your dermatologist removes will be sent to a lab, where a doctor, such as a dermatopathologist, will examine it under a high-powered microscope. The doctor is looking for cancer cells.
What this doctor sees while looking at your tissue will be explained in the pathology report, including whether cancer cells were seen. If melanoma cells are seen, the report will include many important details, including:
The type of melanoma
How deeply the melanoma tumor has grown into the skin
How quickly the melanoma cells are growing and dividing
If its possible to tell the stage of the melanoma, the report will include this information.
Stages of melanoma
Heres an explanation of what each stage of melanoma means:
Stages of melanoma
The melanoma has spread to either: One or more nearby lymph node Nearby skin
Once the stage is known, the next step is treatment.
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Presentation Of Melanoma In The Nail Unit
There are 2 main patterns of nail unit melanoma longitudinal melanonychia and amelanotic tumours . The first may be associated with alteration of nail plate anatomy in more advanced cases. The latter is almost always associated with nail plate change. Some NUM may present with features common to both patterns.
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Characteristics And Treatment For Nail Melanoma In Situ
- Dermatologic Surgery
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Epidemiology Of Toenail Fungus
The occurrence of onychomycosis has been reported 23% across Europe and 20% in East Asia. In north America the statistics are found to be 14%, with fungal infections constituting the 50% of nail related diseases. Since this infection is contagious and can be transmitted directly or by using the belongings of an infected person, this serves as the reason for such wide spread rate of this infection.
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How Is Melanoma Of Nail Unit Treated
The choice of treatment for Melanoma of Nail Unit depends on how far the cancer has progressed. This is estimated through staging of the melanoma. Some of the factors taken into consideration during staging include:
- The thickness of the melanoma : Tumors can be thin, intermediate, or thick, depending on how deep into the skin they have penetrated. The thinner the tumor, the better the chances of a cure
- Presence of any ulceration over the tumor
- Spread of melanoma to lymph nodes or other internal organs
The melanoma is sorted into one of four stages depending on how far it has progressed, with I and II being early stages, III and IV being later stages, where melanoma has spread to sites beyond the skin. While early stage melanomas can be treated by surgery alone, the later stages of the disease often require a combination of treatment measures.
Treatment options for melanoma include:
- Simple excision of the tumor along with some normal, non-cancerous skin at the edges . The width of the margin is based on the thickness of the tumor as the thickness of the melanoma increases, the margin required increases as well
- Mohs micrographic surgery:
- Being used of late by some surgeons as an alternative technique to standard excision of melanoma
- A thin layer of skin is removed and checked for cancer. This process is the carried out continuously, until a cancer-free slice of skin is obtained
- This procedure is rarely used as a surgical treatment option for melanoma
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Fungal Nail Infection Symptoms
Symptoms are different depending on which type of fungal nail infection you have. They usually start mild and get more serious.
- At first, you may only see a white or yellow spot under your nail. Over time, this spreads and can turn your whole nail white, yellow, green, or black.
- The nail may thicken and could be hard to trim.
- It may start to curl up or down or loosen from the nail bed.
- Your nail could become brittle and crumble when you touch it.
- Your nail may become misshapen.
- You may notice a bad smell.
ItÃ¢s easy to ignore fungal nail infections at first, since you may not have any pain. But if you donÃ¢t treat them, it can hurt to put any pressure on the area. If an infection gets bad enough, it could even become hard to walk.
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Other Things To Know About Acral Lentiginous Melanoma
As an ALM tumor increases in size, it usually becomes more irregular in shape and color .
The surface of the ALM lesion may remain flat, even as the tumor invades deeply into the skin.
Thickening ALM on the sole of the foot can make walking painful and be mistaken for a plantar wart.
The surface of a spot of ALM may also start out smooth and become bumpier or rougher as it evolves. If a tumor begins to grow from the cancerous skin cells, the skin will become more bulbous, discolored, and rough to the touch.
Less advanced cancers and thinner tumors have better survival rates. Raised tumors tend to be more aggressive.
Men are more likely than women to have thick, large tumors at diagnosis.
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How To Get Rid Of Black Toenails
The treatment of black toenails ranges between simple shapes and more complex variants. As we already anticipated, among the runners it is usual that they resort to homemade boarding methods to drain the blood under the nail.
And when subungual hematoma clearly comes from trauma, the indication is drainage. If the blood protrudes outside the limits of the nail, what is done is a puncture to escape the blood.
For fungal infections, antifungals are chosen. Creams for athletes foot do not penetrate the nail, so lacquer presentations are preferred. If that first line fails, the next option is the oral medication.
Finally, before a subungual melanoma the treatment is surgery. The entire nail should be removed and the tumor removed with the free margins to ensure healing. Of course, it is a practice that can only be performed by a surgeon and by no means practiced at home.
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Fast Facts On Black Lines On The Nails:
- There are many causes of this condition, both of no concern and serious.
- Treatment depends on discovering the underlying cause.
- A person should see a doctor if they notice a change to their fingernail that cannot be explained by a trauma.
Most commonly, dark stripes down a persons nail are due to a symptom known as linear melanonychia. According to the United Kingdoms National Health Service, these stripes commonly occur in those of African-American descent who are age 20 and older.
Linear melanonychia is considered a normal fingernail color variation. The condition occurs when pigments in the nail known as melanocytes make excess pigment. This causes the nail beds to darken.
According to an article in the journal Podiatry Today, an estimated 50 percent of African-Americans have this condition.
Less common causes of nail melanonychia exist. These include:
- taking certain medications, such as chemotherapy drugs, beta blockers, anti-malarial drugs, or the medication azidothymidine
Typically, healthy fingernails will have small vertical ridges in them, are curved downward from the nail, and do not crack or break easily. However, there are times when a person may experience black lines on the nail.
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Is A Toenail Melanoma Rare
The current lifetime risk for having a toenail melanoma is 1 in 120 for men and 1 in 95 for women. Therefore, it can be classed as an uncommon type of cancer. Other statistics show that it only accounts for 0.7% and 3.5% of all melanoma cases.
Some research published in 2010 revealed that in the UK, there were over 8500 new cases treated per year.
There is a 60% chance that they will occur in the fingernails, compared to 40% in the toes. Your thumbs and big-toes are the most common digits to be affected.
They are also more common in older people, between the ages of 50 to 70 years old.
Subungual Melanoma: Causes Diagnosis And Treatment
Learn How to Identify This Potentially Serious Condition
Oliver Eng, MD, is a double board-certified surgeon and surgical oncologist and an Assistant Professor of Surgery at the University of Chicago.
Subungual melanoma, sometimes called nail apparatus melanoma, is a type of malignancy that arises in the tissues of the nail bed. Melanoma cancers develop in cells called melanocytes. Melanocytes are cells that produce melanin, the pigment that gives skin, hair, and eyes their color.
Subungual melanomas can occur on any of the fingernails or toenails. These nail cancers are often misdiagnosed as a fungal infection due to their characteristic changes in color and nail texture.
Melanoma of the nail is a relatively uncommon condition, affecting 0.7% to 3.5% of people with malignant melanomas worldwide. It tends to occur more in darker-skinned individuals, including African-American, Asian, and Hispanic populations.
It’s also more common as you age, with one study finding people were diagnosed at an average age of 69 years and 60% of them were male.
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Retain A Healthy And Balanced Foot As Well As Toe Regime
Consult your doctor if you discover an adjustment in nail color or structure. A very early fungi is your ideal possibility to see what its everything about.
Talk to your doctor or pharmacist if you believe you have an infection or fungi, like athletes foot.
The fungus can also infect your nails if it is not dealt with.
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Education And Advising Clients
Despite efforts to educate the public about subungual melanoma in the last couple of decades, awareness of this type of cancer remains poor, noted the authors of a paper published in the Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology in 2018. This is why nail techs, who interact with people who might not see health care providers regularly, are a crucial piece of the detection puzzle, they wrote.
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The Tragedy Of Bob Marley
Robert Nesta Marley, famous Jamaican singer, and songwriter had an untimely death at the ripe at of 36. Hes known for hits like Natural Mystic, War, Redemption Song, and Iron Lion Zion, and Ganja Gun. The reggae pioneering icon tragically lost his four year battle with melanoma in 1981. Stereotypically, you wouldnt associate someone from Jamaica as one whod contract melanoma. It began under the toenail, and against doctors advice for amputation on the grounds of religious concerns, he opted for a toenail removal and skin graph.
He continued touring and was planning a world tour as no disease could deter him from performing. He tried alternative treatments at a clinic run by Issel in Bavaria but died when it spread to his lungs. While the death of this treasured musician is a devastating reminder that no complexion is immune, he remands a legend in the music industry and will be continued to be remembered more for his work as an artist than unfortunate passing. His last words were spoken to Ziggy, his son, with his final breath of wisdom. Money cant buy life.
Causes And Solutions: Toenail Fungus
Fungal infections can happen to anyone and anywhere. Some people have fungal infections in their hair, organs or even toenails.
The most common fungal infection is seen in the toenails. A fungus is very common and everyone has it in their bodies, but when a fungus multiples and fungi begin to thrive, you may have a serious toenail infection.
Although it may appear to be ugly, it is harmless till it spreads to your bloodstream.
Most people treat toenail fungus because it looks bad and can be painful sometimes. It may even be a danger to your health if it reaches the bloodstream.
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What Does Treatment Involve
A melanoma requires surgical treatment. It cannot be treated with creams or laser. The accepted and recommended treatment of a melanoma involves:
- Excision of the melanoma with an appropriately wide margin of skin
- Regular follow up appointments, which involve checking for enlarged lymph nodes, checking for recurrence at the site of the original melanoma, and checking for new melanomas
- Regular full skin checks, with dermoscopy and consideration of digital mapping photography
Removing an appropriate margin of skin with the melanoma reduces the likelihood of the melanoma recurring at the initial site. The recommended margins vary from 0.5cm to 2cm according to the depth of the melanoma, which is measured under a microscope by the pathologist. It is simpler and less disfiguring to take a large margin if the melanoma is on the back than if it is on the eyelid, so the site of the melanoma also plays a role in the decision.