Dos And Donts For Hanging Joists Sizing Beams And Connecting Columns
Q: Tim, Ive never worked with metal joist hangers. How long have joist hangers been around? When I hold one in my hand, I question whether its actually strong enough to support all the weight that will be resting in it. Are they safe? Are there any best practices when it comes to using them both indoors and outdoors on decks? What about the beams that joist hangers are attached to? How do you size those correctly? What about the support posts? Lisa K., Hartford, Conn.
A: If youre about to dip your toe in the magic waters of rough framing, I can tell you that its immensely satisfying to transform a pile of lumber into a structure. My customers for years would marvel at how we would put all the different pieces of lumber together to create a deck, room addition or a house. Joist hangers are safe if installed correctly.
Hanging joists is by no means new. You typically need to hang a joist if the top of it needs to be in the same plane as the beam that supports it. There are all sorts of reasons and conditions on jobs where this is necessary.
Ive got an interesting video on my website showing you just one trick Ive used to install joist hangers. The tips are helpful when it comes to solid lumber that might be cupped and for joists that are not always the exact same height.
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How To Install Joist Hangers
Thorough reinforcement is an essential part of deck installation. One component of this reinforcement is joist hangers. These gadgets are crucial parts of your under-deck areas as they blend structural strength in your outdoor living space and absorb the forces of the structures above it.
They connect the ledger board and joist lumber or beam to establish a floor surface for your outdoor structure. If installed correctly, joist hangers will keep your deck floor ceiling from shrinking with time and act as decorative detail units that display your DIY structural build. Again, improper installation can weaken your deck, damaging your entire structure.
But the question is, how do you install joist hangers? Here is a stepwise process for this project:
Choosing The Right Hanger
Joist hangers are sized by joist depth, and run about 12 inch shorter than the nominal size of the joist . For example, a 2×8 joist hanger is about 6 58 inches tall.
Usually, the hanger size is the same as the joist size, but you can use a hanger that is one dimensional size less than the joist deptha 2×6 hanger can be used with a 2×8 joist, for instance. Keep in mind that the load capacity of the smaller hanger needs to be adequate to support the load on the joist. In the instances I looked at, the load capacities for the shorter hangers exceeded the live, dead, and snow loads required for the deeper joists, provided the joists didnt have large gaps between the ends and the ledger or beam. If you try to buy joist hangers for 2×12 joists, youll find that the common 18-gauge hangers used for deck construction top out at the 2×10 size.
The end joists on a ledger need a hanger just like the rest of the joists, but using a regular joist hanger with out-turned flanges presents a problem: The outside flange extends beyond the ledger. Extending the ledger an extra couple of inches beyond the end of the deck so you have something to nail the flange to is one solution. Others include attaching the joist to the ledger with toenails installing an angle bracket on the inside face of the end joist or smashing the outturned flange of a regular hanger over onto the end of the ledger and nailing it .
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Can You Use Roofing Nails For Joist Hangers
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. Also question is, what nails do I use for joist hangers?
For interior framing, that means using only the thicker 10d, 12d or 16d common nails to fasten a joist hangers face flange to wall ledgers, headers and beams. Outdoors use 16d double-dipped galvanized nails for installing hangers.
Similarly, is a joist hanger stronger than nailing? According to McEntee, A joist hanger or hurricane tie connector will provide a stronger and more reliable connection than toe-nails.
Also Know, can you use a nail gun for joist hangers?
Metal fastener gun: Several maufacturers make guns just for joist hangers and brackets. They have a guide point tip to align the gun with the hole and then you can shoot the joist hanger nail into it. 2.) Palm nailer: inexpensive choice.
Do I need joist hangers?
You dont need joist hangers if youre not attaching to a structure and hanging joists off a ledger or if you dont have a flush beam. Deck screws have very little shear strength they should NEVER be used to connect joists in any way shape or form.
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What Size Nails For Deck Framing
As I stated in this article before, it is best to use 10d or 16d hot-dipped or double-dipped galvanized or stainless steel common spiral nails for your deck framing project. Thus is for a standard deck project, in other cases, it all depends with the size of wood you use for your deck.
This guide has highlighted various nail types varying in length and diameter. I hope you now understand the correct nail size for your incoming deck project.
Do you have a question, opinion or suggestion that you would love to share with me and other readers? Kindly let me know what you think in the comment section below.
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Can You Nail Gun Joist Hangers
Bostitch Joist Hanger Gun However, anyone that has used these hangers can attest to the slow nailing process of using the special joist hanger nails. Because joist hangers typically are attached to a single ply of 1 1/2 material the nails need to be shorter. These metal connector nail guns are amazing.
Can Screws Be Used With Joist Hangers
When properly installed, joist hangers can keep your floors and decks secure and in good condition. While structural nails are typically used to fasten joist hangers, you may be wondering if screws can be used instead.
You can use screws explicitly made for joist hangers. However, avoid using any other types of screws as they cannot support joist loads and are not designed to withstand shear force.
While screws made specifically for joist hanger support are an option, there are other types of attachments used. Well take a look at some of the other options and discuss why some work well while others dont.
Before we get into the details of connectors, lets take a look at what joist hangers are to begin with and what specific purpose they serve.
What are Joist Hangers and what are they used for?
Joist hangers are used as structural support for wood joists on floors, ceilings, decks, and other such applications. They are typically U-shaped and come in various sizes and shapes.
Joist hangers are designed so that they wrap around three sides of a joist and have multiple holes so they can be attached with fasteners to a beam or other structural supporting element. The most common material used for joist hangers is galvanized metal.
Because joist hangers are galvanized, the ideal types of fasteners are galvanized metal to avoid corrosion. Nails work well as long as they are sized correctly, but manufacturer-specified specialty screws can also work.
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What Screws To Use For Decking Joists
Most are 8-gauge and, while 2 1/2 inches is the minimum length needed to hold boards to the joists, 3-inch screws are commonly used to provide extra holding power against the upward pressure of shrinking or warping boards. Specialty materials have different requirements.
Is a joist hanger stronger than nailing?
According to McEntee, A joist hanger or hurricane tie connector will provide a stronger and more reliable connection than toe-nails.
What Are The Alternatives For A Joist Hanger
Mortising, using dowels, and ledgers are a few alternatives. You can also go for bond nailing or toe nailing. These are just general suggestions because the method that you should use largely depends on what youre exactly building. For example, if youre constructing a deck, then youll need to use strip ledgers to support your joists sliding dovetails or mortising wont help in that case.
Crafting beautiful objects out of wood is an art. Whether they are utility products like furniture, shelves, decks, fences, or accent pieces, it requires correct technique and patience.
After touching on so many topics related to the subject, we have reached the end of our informative guide. If youve been diligently reading, we can proudly say that you know all theres to know about joist hangers and end nailing.
You are now ready to go out and take a plunge in your wood crafting endeavors, but remember, information found online can only prepare you so much. Youll get the hang of using all the types of joist hangers once you start practicing it.
Thats it for now well see you next time with another interesting guide. Happy crafting!
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The Details On Improper Joist Hanger Nails
Its acceptable to use these shorter nails to fasten the joist hanger directly into the ledgerboard, but most joist hangers also require nails to be driven at a 45-degree angle through the joist and then into the ledgerboard. When short nails are used at the joist they dont make it into the ledgerboard, so no support is added.
The easiest way to determine if short nails were used at this location is to look underneath the joists. In most cases, there will be a few joists that arent butted up tight to the ledgerboard, and the tips of the nails will be visible if the short nails were used:
The other way to tell is to simply pull a nail out. When the right nails are used, theyre really tough to get out. When the wrong ones are used, they come out pretty easily I just use a mini pry-bar that I carry around in my tool pouch to pry a short nail out.
Can We Use Screws On Joist Hangers
Yes, of course, you can use screws, but youll have to make sure that the ones you are using are of the right type. There are screws available on the market that are specifically designed to be used with joist hangers, so we suggest using them.
Itll add strength and reliability to the project. Furthermore, dont just depend on the screws completely. Add a few other attachments to make sure that your product holds up.
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What Is End Nailing
This is the most basic nailing technique, which is also the weakest. First of all, the end grain of the wood is the weakest, and you should never use this technique when building something you want to stay together.
End nailing is done by hammering a nail or two into the end of a post to attach it to the beam or decking. This type of attachment is typically only done as a temporary hold until it can be strengthened. In other words, you just do not use it in any type of permanent construction.
Other types of nailing, such as toenailing and bond nailing, are sturdier but still not as safe as using joist hangers. When building a deck, wall, flooring, or anything else that has to do with a home or something people will be using, there are laws in place that you have to follow. Most building projects have to include joist hangers to be up to code.
Why Do Carpenters Prefer Screws To Nails
Screws are, in fact, able to create a more secure hold when joining objects than nails because they have a threaded shaft. With that said, nails offer greater tensile strength.
Are joist hangers necessary?
Are Joist Hangers Necessary? No, joist hangers are not necessary.
How much weight can joist hold?
That means the joists can support a minimum of 40 pounds per square foot live load. Though, by consulting the 50 pounds per square foot live load/10 pounds per square foot dead load table, you can see the joists span would need to be reduced to 11 feet 11 inches to support heavier weight safely.
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How Far Can A 210 Joist Span Without Support
How far you can span a 2 × 10 joist span without support is determined by the anticipated load on the joists, how far apart the joists are, and the species and the woods grade. The loading integrates the structures weight and additional fixed weights referred to as dead load . The live load incorporates people, furniture, appliances, etc.
The standard joist spacingsfor 2 × 10 joists are 12, 16, and 24. Joists that are closely packed can bear more weight, allowing them to span a longer distance than joists spaced far apart. For instance, a 2 × 10 southern yellow pine joist can span 16 feet and 1 without support.
Douglas fir 2×10 Joist can span up to 21 feet for a live load worth 30 pounds per square foot if spaced 12 apart. For 16 spacing, it can span 19 feet and 1 inch. A live load worth 60 pounds per square foot requires more support and fewer spans.
For example, if spaced at 12, the joist can only span 16 feet 8 inches. At 16 spacing, the joist can span 15 feet 2 inches. You can use a joist span table to know the maximum 2 × 10 joist spans for other wood grades and species.
Tip: Not all trees are equally strong, and the tree type used to make wood affects how far the joist can span. For instance, those board cuts graded as structural select have the most extended spans.
Screws Are Better For Angle Joist Hanger Fasteners
For double shear fastening, withdrawal strength matters. Screws make quick work of connecting the joist to the ledger. The additional withdrawal strength compounded with their shear strength. Makes an unbeatable combination.
Making the best deck joist hanger connection for strength is #101-1/2 x 0.148 Hot Dip Galvanized nails for the hanger face connection to the ledger or beam and SD CONNECTOR Screw #10 x 2-1/2 for the angle connections.
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Is It Ok To Use Screws On Joist Hangers
The manufacturers agree: Never use galvanized deck screws or drywall screws to install joist hangers. Those screws dont have the shank size and toughness to support joist loads.
Do joist hangers add strength?
Joist hangers provide support underneath the timber beam, joist or rafter to provide a strong connection, to resist downward force and to provide structural stability. The galvanized coating would allow the hanger to be used outdoors. They can be fixed, where fixing is necessary, with either screws or nails.
Can you use framing nails for joist hangers?
The answer is yes! Manufacturers of connection hardware, such as Simpson Strong-tie, always indicate what type of nails should be used with their products. They typcially specify 16d, 10d or 8d common nails for the installation of hangers, straps and ties.
What screws should I use for joist hangers?
A standard 2×10 hanger requires eight fasteners. Using #9 screws will still support the joist sufficiently with 350 extra lbs to spare. Both screws and nails will support the deck, but #10 nails will do even better.
Paper Tape Collated Nails
Paper collated nails have a paper strip glued to them to maintain spacing and angle. The paper tends to fire into the wood or waft around the site. The paper seldom interferes with firing or seating, which is why they are more expensive. It is important, however, to keep the paper collated nails dry from both moisture and humidity.
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What Size Nails Should I Use For Joist Hangers
What size nails should I use for joist hangers? Indoors or out, for standard-type single joist hangers, use only 1-1/2 in. joist hanger nails for nailing into the side of the joist for double hangers, use 8d or 10d nails. For double shear single hangers , fasten the hanger to the joist with longer 8d or 10d nails.
What size nails do I need for joist hangers? Typically, the least you can use for a single joist hanger is a 10d common. The short joist hanger nails are also 10d nails, and they can be used for single joist hangers. When it comes to double joist hangers and beam hangers, however, you need a full-length 16d common nail.
Can I use roofing nails for joist hangers? All too often rookie carpenters or do-it-yourself homeowners will install joist hangers using roofing nails. Not only are the nails heavy duty, but they also have a special galvanized coating thats designed to resist rust and corrosion from chemicals found in modern-day treated lumber.
When nailing 2×6 inch joists what size nail should be used?
How Do You Attach Deck Joists To Beams
Before attaching your deck joists to beams, check the weather. You need to work on a dry day, or the ground will be too wet, muddy, and unconducive to work on.
Your wood must also dry entirely before beginning this project. It also pays to have a friend support you throughout the installation process, especially if you are a beginner.
Check out these steps:
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How To Calculate The Framing Size For A Deck
Identify the distance the boarding will lie over the frames edges. This is usually an inch but can be a different measurement. If you are unsure, confer with the builders plans.
Minus twice the overhang from the deckings finished width. This result is the external width of your decking frame. For instance, if the finished decking width measures 14 feet and the preferred board overhang is 1 on both sides, the frame width must be 13 feet 10 inches. . Repeat this on the front edge from the finished length of your decking and determine the framing size.