How Roof Shingles Are Installed
The specifics of how shingles are laid on your roof vary by manufacturer.
Some roofing shingles, such as Duration®, are applied with a 6-1/2-inch offset and a 5-5/8-inch exposure over a prepared roof deck. Contractors start at the bottom of the roof and work across the roofs surface and up.
Proper overlapping covers up the nails and provides a seamless, attractive look to your roof.
What Nails To Use To Install Shingles Properly
Roofing nails should be no gauge higher than 12, which is the diameter of the nail shank. 11 gauge is better because it is thicker and thus has greater holding power. Length should be no shorter than 1 ¼ and the head must be at least in diameter.
Nails must penetrate the roof sheathing at least by ¾. If the sheathing isnt ¾ thick, then they must go through the sheathing by at least . Abiding by these requirements will ensure you have the right sized nail.
Installations of shingles that occur over the top of old shingles require nails that are, at minimum, 2 in length. This is to ensure the nail penetrates through both the new and old shingle, plus penetrates the roof deck by at least ¾.
Tear Off The Old Shingles
Its impossible to properly install new flashing and underlayment if you dont tear off the old roof beforehand. When tearing off the existing shingles, be sure to remove all the old nails or pound them flat. Protruding nails will tear holes in your new shingles. If you have movable items near your house and youre worried they might get damaged, relocate them. Invest in a few large tarps to protect your plants and landscaping and to catch the thousands of nails that will rain down off the roof. It can be downright impossible to remove old self-stick ice-and-water underlayment, but its OK if you have to leave it in place. And if at all possible, have the rented trash bin parked close to the house so you can toss in the old shingles right from the roof.
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Cracked Roof Shingles Repair
If a shingle is simply cracked or torn, you don’t have to replace itjust repair it. Start by applying a thick bead of roofing sealant under the crack. Press the shingle down and apply a second bead of sealant on top of the crack. Then spread the sealant with a putty knife.
The best part of this fix is that no one has to know you made it. It’s easy to camouflage: Check the gutter for an accumulation of colored granules that have washed down the roof from the shingles. Then gather some into a small cup and sprinkle them over the sealant to mask the repair.
Offsets Between Shingle Courses Requirements For Asphalt Shingle Roofs
Successive courses are typically offset 6 inches on a 36-inch shingle in a stepped fashion, making cutouts align every other course and butt joints align every seventh course .
For a more random pattern where cutouts align only every eighth course, offset shingles only five inches.
Both of these patterns effectively resist leakage, but the 5-inch offset may provide longer wear since water will not be channeled down the cutouts thereby eroding the stone topping.
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How Many Layers Of Shingles Can Be On A Roof
President at Bill Ragan Roofing Company
If youre on a tight budget, youve probably already learned you can nail over your old asphalt roof instead of fully replacing it. However, this wont be an option for most homeowners because of a few reasons.
One of these reasons has to do with how many layers your asphalt roof already has. That begs the question, how many layers of shingles can be on a roof?
Here at Bill Ragan Roofing, our goal is to provide you with all the information you need to know to make the right decisions. Thats why well be breaking down how many layers of shingles can be on your roof.
After that, well also give you the crucial information you need to know about nailing over your current asphalt roof.
Owens Corning Shingles Options
Owens Corning has three shingle tiers: basic, better and best. The Supreme is a basic level shingle and the Oakridge is a basic level architectural shingle.
The Duration is in the better tier and is Owen Cornings best-selling architectural shingle with a standard 130 MPH wind uplift rating and warranty, and the best or premium category shingles, Devonshire, Woodmoor, Woodcrest and Berkshire.
OC Supreme: This is OCs 3-tab shingle with a 25-year warranty to the original owner and 60 MPH wind uplift rating and warranty. 10-year algae warranty. They are available in 14 colors.
OC Duration Series: The best-selling line from Owens Corning competes with the TAMKO Heritage and Heritage Premium shingles, plus CertainTeed Landmark and GAF Timberline shingles. Duration shingles are produced in 8 lines:
Duration: TruDefinition color platform for brightness and contrast, SureNail triple-layer fabric nailing strip for better application and more secure hold, 130mph wind-resistance warranty with the standard 4-nail installation method, 10-year algae warranty, and lifetime limited shingle warranty. 18 colors with regional availability including 1 Energy Star Color in Shasta White.
OC lineup pricing tier: Mid-Range
Duration Designer: All of the above, with Designer shingles available in 8 vibrant colors .
OC lineup pricing tier: Mid-Range
OC lineup pricing tier: Premium
OC lineup pricing tier: Premium
OC lineup pricing tier: Mid-Range
OC lineup pricing tier: Premium
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Mastering Roof Inspections: Asphalt Composition Shingles Part 26
The purpose of the series Mastering Roof Inspections is to teach home inspectors, as well as insurance and roofing professionals, how to recognize proper and improper conditions while inspecting steep-slope, residential roofs. This series covers roof framing, roofing materials, the attic, and the conditions that affect the roofing materials and components, including wind and hail.
Properly Driven Fasteners
Depth of Penetration
Whatever fasteners are used, they have to be of adequate length. Nails should penetrate a minimum of 3/4-inch into the sheathing, or just through the roof sheathing if its 1/2-inch plywood or OSB. Some manufacturers allow nails with less penetration above exposed soffits if extra nails are used.
Longer nails are required under certain circumstances, such as:
- when new shingles are installed over existing shingles
- when thicker shingles, such as high-end, multiple-layer laminated shingles, are used and
- when fastening hip and ridge cap shingles or ridge vent cap shingles. This is especially true when a continuous ridge vent is installed.
If you see many loose or missing shingles, be sure to check the method of fastening.
Nails and staples have to be driven to the proper depth.
Fastener placement is specified by manufacturers, and its often similar for similar types of shingles.
The green areas on this 3-tab shingle show the typical nail placement on homes in areas with normal wind conditions.
How Often Should You Replace Your Roof Shingles
Any damage or signs of wear call for immediate action to keep water from seeping under the shingles and rotting the wood sheathing beneath. Ignoring a problemeven what appears to be a small onewill accelerate the need to reroof and can add hundreds of dollars to the cost of a new roof.
Pro2Pro Tip: Always make roof repairs on a warm, dry afternoon the shingles will be more supple and less likely to crack. And never climb onto a roof thats wet, icy or covered with morning dew.
If your roof is more than 20 years old and most of the shingles are damaged or badly worn, its time to replace it. But if your roof is basically sound and is at a relatively shallow pitch that youre comfortable working on, you can probably handle most repairs yourself.
Here, well take you through the three most-common ones: replacing asphalt shingles gluing down a badly curled shingle and repairing shingles that have cracked.
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Things To Know About Nailing
Now you know what nail-over reroofing is and what the right situation for one is. But there are still some things you need to know about getting a nail-over.
You need to be aware of the cost, warranty options, and the aesthetics that come with upgrading your shingles when you nail-over your current roof.
Fastener Location Requirements For Asphalt Shingle Roofs
Standard shingle nailing for three-tab shingles is four nails per shingle, about 1 inch in from either end and one over each slot.
Shingle nail placement should follow manufacturers specs, which typically require nailing or stapling just below the sealant strip .
Nailing the roof shingle too high can allow wind to get under the shingles.
Nailing the roof shingle too low will expose nails to the weather and to view from below.
Nailing the shingle through the sealant strip can interfere with sealing.
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Driving Roofing Nails For Shingles
Roofing nails should be driven by hand with a hammer or with a properly adjusted pneumatic nail gun.
Nail guns that are improperly adjusted can result in either under penetration or over-penetration of the roofing nails, which then affects the shingles performance. It can also cause:
- Nail corrosion
- Buckling, and
- Shingle blow-offs.
Roofing nails are typically placed no closer than 1 inch fromthe edge of the shingle according to the manufacturers specifications.
Fixing Nailing Mistakes
Its important that nailing errors are fixed immediately.
- Underdriven nails can be appropriately tapped in with a hammer.
- Crooked or overdriven nails need to be removed, and the holes need to be filled in with asphalt roofing cement.
- A new nail must be driven in a nearby spot to secure the shingle. If this cant be done, the entire shingle should be replaced.
Nail Fastening Pattern
A four-nail fastening pattern per shingle is required to take advantage of the maximum wind warranty available on Owens Corning® Duration® shingles. Six nails are required for structures with slopes exceeding 60 degrees or 21 inches per foot. In some areas of the country, building codes may require six nails as well.
It is important to consult your local building department and to refer to the manufacturers installation instructions as the number of nails required often varies depending on the shingle product.
Lay Out The Starter Shingles
- 5.1 – Start in the lower left corner and work towards the valley. Read the manufacturer’s instructions specific to the type of shingle.
- 5.2 – Snap a horizontal chalk line 5-10″ from the lower edge of the roof. Adjust the measurement according to the type of shingle.
- 5.3 – Snap a vertical chalk line every 6 and horizontal lines at regular intervals to ensure the rows of shingles will be straight.
- 5.4 – Use a starter strip or cut the tabs off the shingles to be used.
- 5.5 – Cut 3-5″ from the left side of the shingle to stagger joins.
- 5.6 – Install the starter shingle with the adhesive strip on the edge of the roof. Overlap the fascia boards by approximately 3/8″.
- 5.7 – Align with the chalk line. If necessary, move and snap another line according to the width of the starter strip
- 5.8 – Secure the starter strip with 4 nails equally spaced. Do not nail closer than 6″ from the fascia board, 1″ from the lateral edges, and ½” above each notch. Do not nail into the self-adhesive strip. Nails must be perfectly straight and flush with the surface of the shingles.
- 5.9 – Install starter rows the entire length of the eaves.
- 5.10 – When you come to a valley, place the starter strip on top of the flashing and cut along the chalk line.
- 5.11 – Nail 2″ from the chalk line.
- 5.12 – Make a 2″ bevel cut in the upper corner of the strip and coat the valley side with asphalt sealant.
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Can You Roof A House Yourself
Make no bones about itroofing is hard work. Theres no hiding from the elements. You cant be afraid of heights and you need to be pretty fit. Before committing to this how to roof a house project, try this: Get out a ladder and climb up onto your roof. If you cant walk around on it comfortably, hire a pro. If you passed this first test, go to the lumberyard or home center and throw a bundle of shingles onto your shoulder. Imagine yourself carrying that load up a laddermany, many times.
If youre still feeling positive about this how to roof a house at this point, why not give it a shot? You can skip a lot of heavy lifting by having your roofing supplier hoist the shingles onto the roof. Be sure you spread the load evenly across the length of the roofs peak. However, dont have the shingles delivered to the roof if you still have two layers of old shingles to tear offit could be too much weight for your trusses.
After youve obtained a permit and safely stripped the roof clean, nail drip edge flashing flush along the eave.
Cover the rest of the roof with No. 15 asphalt-saturated felt underlayment . Each layer overlaps the lower one by at least 2 in. Follow this step by nailing drip edge along rakes , on top of the underlayment. As you did with the flashing, always lap upper pieces over lower pieces. The felt keeps the roof deck dry before shingles go on, protects against wind-driven rain as shingles fail and increases fire resistance.
Manual Sealing Requirements For Asphalt Shingle Roofs
Details about the sealing recommendations from asphalt shingle roofing experts are at WIND DAMAGE to ROOFSandat ASPHALT SHINGLE CELLOPHANE STRIP REMOVAL we include an exhaustive review of the argument around whether or not one should remove the cellophane strips from the back of asphalt roof shingles before they are installed .
Here is what the GAF Materials Corporation, Grand TimberlinePremium Architectural Shingle Application Instructions say about the glue strips and cellophane. You’ll note that we are to leave the cellophane in place, but if site conditions require immediate shingle sealing, an extra step, using additional shingle tab adhesive, is permitted.
WIND RESISTANCE/HAND SEALING: These shingles have a special thermal sealant that firmly bonds the shingles together after application when exposed to sun and warm temperatures. Shingles installed in Fall or Winter may not seal until the following Spring.
If shingles are damaged by winds before sealing or are not exposed to adequate surface temperatures, or if the self sealant gets dirty, the shingles may never seal. Failure to seal under these circumstances results from the nature of self-sealing shingles and is not a manufacturing defect.
To insure immediate sealing, apply 4 quarter-sized dabs of shingle tab adhesive on the back of the shingle 1″ and 13″ in from each side and 1″ up from bottom of the shingle. Press shingle firmly into the adhesive.
NOTE: Excess tab adhesive can cause blistering of the shingle.
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Nailing & Sealing Asphalt Shingles On Near
Our steep roof photo shows quite a few shingles lost from this rather steep church roof slope.
Similar problems occur when asphalt shingles are nailed to the steep sides of mansard roofs unless proper nailing and sealing have been performed.
Flickinger cites the NRCA Roofing and Waterproofing Manual 4th Ed where, in referring to roof slopes of 18″ rise in 12″ of run or more, the NRCA points out that there are differing views within the roofing industry about the maximum slope on which asphalt shingles may be applied using typical methods.
We discuss the recommended installation details for installing asphalt roof shingles on very steep or near vertical roof slopes and also use of roof shingles or even roll roofing on vertical building walls separately
Waterproof The Vent Pipes
- 10.1 – Install shingles right up to the vent pipe.
- 10.2 – Trim shingles so that they fit around the pipe, then nail.
- 10.3 – Insert pre-formed flashing around the vent, then glue with plastic roof cement. The boot should extend 4″ over the lower shingles, rise 8″ on the vent, and extend 6″ on both sides.
- 10.4 – Colmater l’espace entre le tuyau et le solin avec du ciment plastique.
- 10.5 – Continue installing shingles, taking care to completely cover the upper edge of the flashing.
- 10.6 – Glue all parts of shingles overlapping the flashing with plastic cement.
- 10.7 – Coat exposed nails with plastic roof cement
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Installing Roof Shingles In 11 Steps:
Use Staples To Install Asphalt Roof Shingles
Watch out: the following is an excerpt from a GAF Technical Advisory Bulletin warning about the use of staples to secure asphalt shingles:
Staples are not recommended by GAF and most industry organizations
Staples made of at least 16-gauge galvanized steel with a minimum crown of 15/16 have been and continue to be used by some applicators to install shingles.
If staples are used to install GAF shingles, our limited shingle warranty will remain in effect.
However any problems resulting from the use of staples, including wind blow-off, are not covered by the warranty.
… Most local building codes do not permit the use of staples
Details about stapling vs. nailing asphalt shingles including our list of the many ways to make a mistake when stapling shingles are
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