How Hiv And Hepatitis B And C Are Spread
HIV damages the immune system and can cause acquired immune deficiency syndrome if untreated. Hepatitis B and C are viruses that can cause serious damage to the liver. To become infected with HIV or hepatitis B or C while playing sports, body fluids such as blood from an infected person would need to enter your bloodstream through:
- a significant abrasion on your skin
- a bleeding wound
- your mucous membranes .
HIV and hepatitis B are spread in similar ways. Because both HIV and hepatitis B are found in blood, semen and vaginal fluids, these infections are transmitted:
- from mother to baby during childbirth or breastfeeding.
HIV cannot be transmitted by a person who is on treatment and who has low levels of virus in their body . In other words, there is no risk of HIV transmission through exposure to blood during sport from a person has an undetectable viral load.
Hepatitis C is spread through blood-to-blood transmission only, but is not thought to be sexually transmitted unless blood is present.
Its Easy To Tell The Symptoms Of Hiv
The symptoms of HIV can differ from person-to-person and some people may not get any symptoms at all. Without treatment, the virus will get worse over time and damage your immune system over time. There are three stages of HIV infection with different possible effects.
Also, you also cant tell by looking at someone whether they have HIV or not. Many people don’t show signs of any symptoms. And, for people living with HIV who are on effective treatment, they are just as likely to be as healthy as everyone else.
Conditions Needed To Transmit Hiv
As serious an infection as HIV is, the virus itself is not all that robust. Others, like the flu and cold viruses, are far more sturdy and can be passed from one person to next by sneezing. HIV cannot. Instead, there four conditions that must take place in order for infection to occur:
- There must be body fluids in which HIV can thrive. For HIV, this meanssemen, blood, vaginal fluids, or breast milk. HIV cannot survive for very long in the open air or in parts of the body where is high acid content .
- There must be a way for body fluids to enter the body. This happens primarily through sexual contact but can also be spread through , accidental blood exposure in healthcare settings, or transmission of the virus from mother to child during pregnancy.
- The virus must be able to reach vulnerable cells inside the body. Skin contact with a body fluid is not enough.It needs to enter the bloodstream through a break in the skin or penetrate vulnerable mucosal tissues of the vagina or rectum. The depth and size of the penetration also matter, with a deep cut being riskier than a scrape.
- There must be sufficient amounts of virus in the body fluid. This is why saliva, sweat, and tears are unlikely sources of infection since the enzymes in these fluids actively break down HIV and its genetic structure.
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Why Are The Nail Changes Important
Nail changes in people with HIV can provide valuable information for treatment. Some nail changes can help inform doctors of the stage of your HIV infection.
Some nail changes, like melanonychia, are a common side effect of certain types of HIV medications. If you notice these nail changes, dont stop taking your medication without speaking to a doctor first.
If you think you have a fungal infection of your nails, see your doctor for treatment.
What Is The Risk Of Getting Hiv Hepatitis B Or Hepatitis C
The risk of getting HIV, hepatitis B or C depends on the amount of virus in the blood or body fluid and the type of contact. For example, a piercing through the skin poses a greater risk than a splash on the skin.
The emergency department health care provider will tell you whether your exposure puts you at risk of these infections.
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Hiv: How Its Not Transmitted
The following are nine ways the virus is not spread:
Kissing and touching. Social kissing and hugging pose no risk of transmission, Sha says. Also, being sexual with someone without exchanging infected body fluids does not spread the virus. The only time deep kissing is a risk is when the person infected with HIV has open sores or oral bleeding, Sha notes.
Sharing a living space. Any casual contact with someone who has HIV, including sharing a bathroom, is safe. However, Sha tells patients not to share razor blades or toothbrushes. If someone who is infected nicks himself while shaving or has bleeding gums, it could increase risk of transmission.
Sharing food or utensils. The virus cannot survive on surfaces, so sharing utensils and other household items will not spread HIV. You can even share a meal with someone who is infected without worry. Transmission has been associated with mothers pre-chewing food for their babies, when infected blood from the mouth mixes with the food. Known as pre-mastication, it is a common practice in Africa, but not typically done in the United States, Sha says.
Saliva, sweat, or tears. An infected persons saliva, sweat, and tears do not put you at risk.
Water fountains. Sipping from a water fountain after someone who has HIV used it is considered casual contact and will not lead to transmission.
Mosquitoes and other insects. The virus is not viable in insects or ticks, Sha says.
Protecting Against Hiv And Hepatitis Off The Field
It is important to practise safer sex when off the field by using condoms and water or silicone-based lubricant to protect yourself from HIV, hepatitis B and other sexually transmissible infections. For more information, see HIV and women safer sex and HIV and men safer sex.
People who inject steroids or other performance enhancing drugs are at risk of HIV, and both hepatitis B and C, if they share needles, syringes or any injecting equipment such as swabs or tourniquets. Injecting equipment should be used once only and never shared.
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How Do I Protect Myself From Hiv
There are a number of ways you can protect yourself from HIV, including:
- using a condom every time you have vaginal, anal or oral sex
- in some countries PrEP is available. This is a course of HIV drugs which if taken consistently as advised by your healthcare professional prevents HIV infection through sex
- avoiding sharing needles, syringes and other injecting equipment
- taking HIV treatment if you are a new or expectant mother living with HIV, as this will dramatically reduce the risk of passing HIV to your baby during pregnancy, childbirth and breastfeeding
- asking your healthcare professional if the blood product you are receiving has been tested for HIV
- taking precautions if you are a healthcare worker, such as wearing protection , washing hands after contact with blood and other bodily fluids, and safely disposing of sharp equipment
- if you think you have been exposed to HIV you may be able to access PEP, a 4-week course of ARV drugs taken after possible HIV exposure to prevent HIV infection. You must start PEP within 72 hours of possible exposure to be effective.
For more detailed information on how to prevent HIV infection visit the relevant page from the listed below:
What We Know About Kissing
Theres no chance of getting HIV from closed-mouth or social kissing, and you cant get HIV through saliva. In some very rare cases, people have gotten HIV from deep, open-mouth French kissing because they and their partners had blood in their mouths from bleeding gums or sores . But the chance of getting HIV from deep, open-mouth kissing is much lower than from most other sexual activities.
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Hiv: How Its Transmitted
HIV is spread through certain body fluids, such as blood, semen , rectal fluids, vaginal fluids, and breast milk, according to the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services AIDS.gov website. The virus can be transmitted when these fluids in an infected person come into contact with mucous membranes in the rectum, vagina, penis, or mouth of another person.
While HIV can be spread during anal or vaginal sex, anal sex is riskier because there is more trauma and irritation to the mucous membranes, says Beverly Sha, MD, professor of medicine in the division of infectious diseases at Rush University Medical Center in Chicago.
Although the risk is low, HIV can also be spread through oral sex. HIV transmission can happen during ejaculation into the mouth, or if there are mouth ulcers, bleeding gums, genital sores, or other sexually transmitted diseases present, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
Using condoms during sex lowers the risk of HIV transmission. When they are used properly, its clear they offer significant protection, Dr. Sha says. However, condoms can fail when they break, if theyre too old, or if they are not used correctly.
The virus can also spread if infected fluids come into contact with damaged tissue, such as a cut in the skin, or if infected blood is transferred from a needle or syringe. Doing injection drugs with someone who is infected and sharing equipment is high risk. HIV can be found in a used needle for as long as 42 days.
What We Know About Hormone And Steroid Injecting
Hormone and steroid injections can be done safely by a health care provider. But theres a chance that someone can get or transmit HIV if an HIV-negative person uses needles, syringes, or other injection equipment after someone with HIV has used them. This is because the needles, syringes, or other injection equipment may have blood in them, and blood can carry HIV. Likewise, youre at risk for getting or transmitting hepatitis B and C if you share syringes because these infections are also transmitted through blood.
More Information About 1 out of every 10 HIV diagnoses in the United States is among people who inject drugs. This includes gay and bisexual men who inject drugs. On average, an HIV-negative person has a 1 in 420 chance of getting HIV from a needlestick if the needle or syringe contains HIV-infected blood.
More Information There may be extremely tiny amounts of blood in syringes or works that you may not be able to see, but could still carry HIV. Be aware that HIV can survive in a used syringe for up to 42 days depending on temperature and other factors.
There are medicines to treat hepatitis B. If youve never had hepatitis B, theres a vaccine to prevent it. There are medicines to treat hepatitis C, but they arent right for everyone. Theres no vaccine to prevent hepatitis C. Talk to your health care provider to learn more about hepatitis B and C.
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Occupational Exposure To Bloodborne Pathogens
Occupational exposure means reasonably anticipated skin, eye, mucous membrane, or parenteral contact with blood or other potentially infected materials that may result from the performance of an employees duties.
Exposure incident means a specific eye, mouth, other mucous membrane, non-intact skin, or parenteral contact with blood or OPIM that results from the performance of an employees duties. Examples of non-intact skin at risk include skin with dermatitis, hangnails, cuts, abrasions, chafing, or acne.
Occupational groups that have been widely recognized as having potential exposure to HBV/HCV/HIV include, but are not limited to, healthcare employees, law enforcement, fire, ambulance, and other emergency response, and public service employees.
The following requirements are mandated by Washington Administrative Code Chapter 296-823, Occupational Exposure to Bloodborne Pathogens. They are enforced by the Department of Labor and Industries Division of Occupational Safety and Health . Please check with your agencies to make sure you are in compliance with the requirements of this rule. Failure to comply may result in citations or penalties.
The following standards and rules are specifically for the state of Washington, however many states have similar standards and compliance with the occupational exposures rules outlined here are effective in minimizing risk of bloodborne pathogens including HIV, HCV, and HBV.
Test Your Knowledge
Search Results And Study Selection
Our literature search found 1357 citations: 1342 via database searches, and 15 from hand searching of conferences and reference lists. Of these, 615 were duplicates, leaving 742 for title or abstract review. A further 710 were removed because they clearly did not meet the inclusion criteria based on information contained in the title or abstract. The remaining 32 articles underwent full-text review, of which 19 were subsequently removed because they met the exclusion criteria , leaving 13 articles in the final data set .
A woman was bitten by her HIV-positive sister during a fight. The perpetrator was known to be HIV positive and had blood in her mouth at the time of the bite, although her HIV stage, VL and ART status at the time of the incident were not reported. It was not reported whether the bite resulted in breakage of the skin. The recipient was not screened for HIV at the time of the bite, but was found to be HIV seropositive on occupational screening 2 years later. She had a documented negative HIV test 2 years prior to the bite and disclosed three sexual partners in the interim, two of whom were reportedly HIV negative but one of whom was untraceable.
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What We Know About Vaginal Sex
When a woman has vaginal sex with a partner who has HIV, HIV can enter her body through the mucous membranes that line the vagina and cervix. Most women who get HIV get it from vaginal sex. Even if a womans male partner withdraws or pulls out before ejaculating, she can still get infected because pre-seminal fluid can carry HIV.
On average, an HIV-negative woman has about a 1 in 1,250 chance of getting HIV every time she has vaginal sex with a man who has HIV.
On average, a woman with HIV has about a 1 in 2,500 chance of transmitting HIV every time she has vaginal sex with an HIV-negative man.
For an HIV-negative woman, anal sex is about 17 times more risky than vaginal sex for getting HIV from a partner with HIV.
For a woman with HIV, anal sex is about 3 times more risky than vaginal sex for transmitting HIV to an HIV-negative partner.
If the partner with HIV takes HIV medicine as prescribed, and gets and keeps an undetectable viral load , their partner has effectively no risk of getting HIV through sex. See how receptive vaginal sex compares to other sexual activities here.
On average, an HIV-negative man has about a 1 in 2,500 chance of getting HIV every time he has vaginal sex with a woman who has HIV.
On average, a man with HIV has about a 1 in 1,250 chance of transmitting HIV every time he has vaginal sex with an HIV-negative woman.
What To Do If You’re Not Sure
HIV hotlines are used to getting calls from people who are afraid they have been infected through casual contact. Perhaps the person was involved in a fight or came into contact with someone who was bleeding. Others may worry about having deep kissed someone who may or may not have HIV.
While the likelihood of infection in these cases would be considered negligible to nil, people will often want a 100% guarantee that they’re going to be fine nothing less will suffice.
In such cases, doctors will usually take the opportunity to perform an HIV test and perform pre- and post-test counseling to better understand what the person knows about HIV and answer any questions they might have.
If there is a risk of actual transmission, however small, the doctor may opt to prescribe a 28-day course of HIV medications known as post-exposure prophylaxis which may avert infection if treatment is started within 72 hours of the suspected exposure.
In cases where the person’s fears seem extreme and unreasonable, counseling may also be needed to address the possibility of AIDS phobia or other possible anxiety disorders.
Genital Herpes Is Spread By Skin To Skin Contact And:
- Testing is done by a swab, blood or visual exam .
- Blood testing for herpes can be ordered by your health care provider but can cost money to have the test done.
- The virus causes painful sores on mouth, genitals, anal area, bum and top of legs.
- Symptoms show up two to 21 days after contact with the virus.
- It is treated with an antiviral medication.
- Once you have a herpes virus, you have it for life.
- It is important to follow your treatment plans.
Knowledge Of Barbers Towards Sterilization And Disinfection And Awareness Of Hiv Transmission In Their Work Place
Ninety six of the respondents knew that HIV and other bacterial and fungal skin infections could be transmitted by sharing non-sterile sharp barbershop equipments. Out of one hundred twenty three barbers, 59 had the correct knowledge of what sterilization mean and 111 of them also believed that it is important being practiced in their work place. All were able to mention at least one disease which could be transmitted by using unsterilized sharp objects. Almost all 119 knew sterilization is important in their work place . However, their scored level of knowledge towards sterilization and disinfection as well as awareness in the transmission of HIV in their work place showed that 23 had excellent knowledge followed by 52 had good knowledge, 43 had fair knowledge, while the rest had poor 5 knowledge. All the barbers were aware of HIV/AIDS and they had a mean knowledge score of 6±1.5 out of a maximum score of 10 regarding sterilization and disinfection as well as in the transmission of HIV in their work place . However, using the Likert scaling, respondents had poor level of knowledge.
Table 3 Assessment of knowledge of barbers towards sterilization and disinfection as well as their awareness in the transmission of HIV in their work place of male barbershops of Gondar and Bahir Dar cities, 2010
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